Protections and Guarantees
Specific Instruments
  General Instruments
  Selected Case Law
  Case Law Websites
  Human Rigths Actors
Protections and Guarantees
Specific Instruments
Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Date of adoption: 16/12/1966 Entry into force: 23/3/1976
System of protection: Universal
General Instruments
Proclamation of Teheran
Date of adoption: 13/5/1968 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
Date of adoption: 25/6/1993 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
Protocol of the Court of Justice of the African Union
Date of adoption: 10/7/2003 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Organization of African Unity
La compétence universelle
- X
Latest update: 26/07/2003 First published: 2002
Reference: Politique, Revue de débats, numéro 23, Février 2002
Discussion over the "universal jurisdiction" law set up in Belgium -Collection of articles
La Cour africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples. Présentation, analyse et commentaire du Protocole à la Charte africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples, créant la Cour
Latest update: 23/02/2003 First published: 11/1999
Reference: -
Survey and comment of the Protocol creating the new African Court of Human Rights.
Regionalism v. Universalism
Christoph SCHREUER
Latest update: 29/10/2002 First published: 1995
Reference: European Journal of International Law, 6 (3) 1995, pp. 477 - 499
"Regionalist features have emerged both inside and outside the United Nations. Internal regionalization has occurred through the composition, structure and decision-making processes of the United Nations"(...)
Languages: English Swedish
Thousands of references (with abstracts) to monographs, articles, and seminar reports concerning human rights from 1966 on, updated daily. The data are stored in a free form and every word and phrase is searchable. Follows HURIDOCS standards.
Languages: English French
This site, set up by the Human Rights Directorate General, presents and gives access to all the Council of Europe's activities and documents related to human rights. The quality of the links it offers is rather inconsistent.
Languages: English Spanish
Official Website of the Court -Information - Jurisprudence - Press releases - Publications - Human Rights Library - Digital library - Links to other international courts, etc. - News. The Spanish version is more complete than the English.
Languages: English French Spanish
A very good introduction to the universal system of human rights protection: illustrated history, presentation of basic legal instruments and protection mechanisms. Tools for education: vocabulary, tests, bibliography.
Languages: English
The primary goal of this site is to compile news articles and commentaries that address issues of human rights from news sources throughout the world. People and organizations (human rights actors) - Discussions - links to web sites.
Languages: English Greek
News and human rights reports (for example: muslim weddings by proxy in Greece) - Special focus on subjects such as terrorism - The state of the respect of human rights in Greece - Criminal law
Languages: English
Too much design makes the site difficult to read, but it presents news forums about all existing international courts and tribunals and case law of the principal int'l judicial bodies. 'Research matrix' and 'synoptic chart' are worth visiting.
Selected Case Law
Case Law Websites
Council of Europe - Human Rights Web
Languages: English French
Search the case-law of the European Convention on Human Rights control bodies.
International Human Rights Law Database (The)
Languages: English
A resource for those seeking summaries and commentaries on international human rights case law, the database allows searches by text, 47 subjects, 81 states, 9 treaties, 9 decisionmaking bodies, and date. A powerful and quick database.
Repertorio de Jurisprudencia del Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos
Languages: Spanish
Directory of the case law of the Inter-American Court 1980 - 1997.
Asia Overview, World Report 2003-Event of 2002
Human Rights Watch Date: 2003
Reference: Human Rights Watch
Source: Human Rights Watch
Introductory Report on the situation of Asian Human Rights from November 2001 to November 2002
Advisory Services and Technical Cooperation
Haut Commissariat des Nations Unis aux droits de l'homme Date: 8/1996
Reference: Fact Sheet No.3 (Rev.1)
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The human rights Fact Sheet Series is published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva.
National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
HCDH / OHCHR Date: 4/1993
Reference: Fact Sheet No. 19
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The human rights Fact Sheet Series is published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva.
Complaint Procedures
HCDH / OHCHR Date: inconnue
Reference: Fact Sheet No.7/Rev.1
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The human rights Fact Sheet Series is published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva.
The Committee against Torture
HCDH / OHCHR Date: inconnue
Reference: Fact Sheet No. 17
Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
The human rights Fact Sheet Series is published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Geneva.
Droit international et européen des droits de l'homme
Frédéric SUDRE
Reference: Paris, P.U.F., 2000
Languages: French
Good introductory book offering a comparative view of the different international regimes of protection of fundamental rights.
Theory and Reality in the International Protection of Human Rights
Reference: Ardsley, New York, Transnational Publishers, Inc, 1999
Languages: English
The author questions the validity of the international protection of human rights. He defends the traditional theory of international law based on a decentralized nation-state system of international relations.
Introduction au droit public, t. II, Les droits et libertés
Reference: Diegem, Kluwer, 2003
Languages: French
Professor Ergec's book on rights and freedoms was enlarged for this 2nd edition. The book covers fundamental rights and freedoms at Belgian, European and International levels.
Code de droit international des droits de l'homme
Reference: Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003
Languages: French
2nd edition (updated to May 1st, 2003) of this collection of the main international instruments (as well universal as regional) regarding the protection of fundamental human rights.
Monitoring Human Rights in Europe. Comparing International Procedures and Mechanisms
A. Bloed, L. Leicht, M. Nowak, A. Rosas Ed.
Reference: Dordrecht/Boston/London, Martinus Nijhoff, 1993
Languages: English
The studies focus on the effectiveness of the various mechanisms and frameworks, their differing legal and political characteristics and contexts, their interrelationship as well as their advantages and disadvantages.
Monitoring Human Rights in Europe: Comparing International Procedures and Mechanisms
Arie Bloed, Liselotte Leicht, M. Nowak, A. Rosas Ed.
Reference: Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993
Languages: English
Collection of articles on international mechanisms for the protection of human rights and the prevention of their abuses in Europe: Reporting procedures - Individual complaints - Contribution of NGOs - Torture - Minority rights - ICTY...
Guide to International Human Rights Practice
Hurst Hannum Ed.
Reference: Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992
Languages: English
H. Hannum and the contributors to this volume describe briefly the basic regimes and procedures of international human rights law: UN - Regional systems.
Human Rights and Indigenous Peoples: A Handbook on the UN System
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Ed.
Reference: -,, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, 1999
Languages: English French Spanish
Indigenous Human Rights - International mechanisms - Possibilities and limitations of UN action.
La protection diplomatique : mutations contemporaines et pratiques nationales
J-F Flauss Ed.
Reference: Bruxelles, Droit & Justice, Bruylant, 2003
Languages: French
Collected papers from a seminar on the evolution of international law of diplomatic protection and of national practices : discretionnary power of the State vs. continuous development of international human rights law, ...
Avancées et confins actuels des droits de l'homme aux niveaux international, européen et national
Mélanges offerts à Silvio Marcus Helmons Ed.
Reference: Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003
Languages: French
Impressive collection of articles in the field of international and european human rights, as a tribute to the founder of the Center for Human Rights of the faculty of law of the Université Catholique de Louvain.
Recueil juridique des droits de l'homme en Afrique (1996-2000)
Paul Tavernier Ed. - Paul TAVERNIER
Reference: Bruxelles, CREDHO & human rights law in Africa Series, Bruylant, 2002
Languages: English French
I. United Nations and human rights in Africa : a report -- II. Regional protection : Organization of African Unity (a report), European Union, Francophonie -- III. National protection (per country) -- Treaties, rafications and a large bibliography
Actualité et Droit International
Languages: French
E-journal of international news legal analysis. Articles (archive from 1998, quick search), chronicles and cases, discussions, international news, announcements. Useful links.
Droits Fondamentaux
Reference: Paris,
Languages: French
First electronic journal in French on Fundamental Rights.
Human Rights Brief - Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
Reference: Washington, Washington College of Law
Languages: English
The Human Rights Brief reports about developments in international human rights and humanitarian law, as well as provides concise legal analysis of current human rights issues. Search by Volume / Issue / Title / Author. Archive since Spring 1994.
The International Journal of Human Rights
Reference: London, Frank Cass Publishers
Languages: English
Quarterly journal covering an exceptionally broad spectrum of human rights issues: human rights and the law, race, religion, gender, children, class, refugees and immigration, genocide, torture, capital punishment, the laws of war and war crimes, ...
Human Rights Actors
Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs - Human Rights Initiative () Type:Research / Education
The Human Rights Initiative is a multi year research and dialogue project of the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. It aims to provide critical perspective of what happens when human rights confronts realities on the ground.
Center for documentation, information and education on human rights (CDIFDH) Type:National Human Rights Institution
Official Moroccan institution whose mission is to contribute to the ongoing reforms of the Moroccan society and to foster dialogue between governmental and non governmental actors in the field of human rights : publications, seminars, courses, ...
Derechos Human Rights () Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
The first internet based human rights organization. Purpose: to work for the promotion and respect of human rights all over the world, for the right to privacy and against impunity for human rights violators. Use internet as primary information tool.
European Master's Degree in Human Right and Democratisation (E.MA) Type:Research / Education
The European Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation is a multidisciplinary and intensive one-year academic programme that reflects the indivisible links between human rights, democracy, peace and development.
Foundation for Human & Humanitarian Rights Lebanon () Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
An inter-state, inter-faith, inter-party and inter-ethnic forum of activists concerned with the rights and freedoms of all human beings as individuals and groups, on the local, regional and international levels.
Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace () Type:Research / Education
Supports major studies on the history, politics, and social development of the non-Western world, with particular emphasis on the Middle East. Minerva Center for Human Rights; Modernization and Comparative Civilizations Unit. Interdisciplinary.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Australia) (HREOC) Type:National Human Rights Institution
A national independent statutory government body. Conducts inquiries into alleged discrimination on the grounds of race, colour or ethnic origin, racial vilification, sex, sexual harassment, marital status, pregnancy, or disability. HR education.
Human Rights Centre, University of Essex () Type:Research / Education
Co-ordinates the University's interdisciplinary human rights teaching programme as well as a programme of research, training, external consultancy and publication on international, comparative and national aspects of human rights.
Human Rights Centre, University of Potsdam (MRZ) Type:Research / Education
Activities: conduct and publication of research, library, documentation system, teaching. International obligations and Germany - Human rights clauses in EC foreign relations - The question of remedies for HR violations - Minority issues.
Human Rights Commission of New Zealand () Type:National Human Rights Institution
A statutory body set up to administer the Human Rights Act 1993. 2 Functions: to promote, by education and publicity, respect for and observance of human rights; to impartially investigate and attempt to resolve complaints of unlawful discrimination.
Human Rights Committee (HRC) Type:United Nations System
Established to monitor the implementation of the ICCPR and its Protocols in the territory of States parties.
Human Rights Forum 21 (Japan) () Type:Network
Formed by major human rights organizations and academics to provide NGO perspective to the Japanese Advisory Council for Human Rights Protection and Promotion and encourage further commitment of the Government to the promotion and protection of HR.
Human Rights Institute at Columbia Law School (HRI) Type:Research / Education
Supports legal education for the emerging human rights profession - Assists in "professionalizing" the human rights movement - Focus on transitional justice - Examines US constitutional rights and international rights, and how the two work together.
Human Rights Research and Education Centre (University of Ottawa) (HRREC) Type:Research / Education
Linkages between human rights, governance, legal reform and development. Supporting national human rights institutions in Canada and Abroad. Improving domestic social justice institutions and programs. Multidisciplinary research and education.
Human Rights Trust of Southern Africa (SAHRIT) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Mainstreaming human rights within public institutions in the region, especially those charged with administering justice, enforcement of legal and human rights instruments, and promoting individual welfare. Special focus on child rights.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Major international NGO that investigates human rights violations worldwide.
Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights (KOMNAS HAM, INCHR) Type:National Human Rights Institution
4 types of activities: advance the concept of human rights nationally and internationally; propose and monitor ratification of international treaties; monitor and investigate implementation; cooperate with regional and international agencies.
Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity (INCORE) Type:Research / Education
Aims to address the management and resolution of conflict through research, training, and influential activities. Its research focuses mainly on post conflict issues, issues of governance and diversity, and research methodology in violent societies.
Institute for Human Rights Lebanon () Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Aims at promoting universal values stated in the Lebanese constitution and in the UN conventions of human rights. Distributes texts of the conventions - Monitors their implementation in Lebanon by publishing special reports - Prepares draft laws.
Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University () Type:Research / Education
Aim: to promote research, provide education and disseminate information relating to the protection of human rights. Assists various outside institutions - Human rights library - Bibliography on human rights - FINDOC human rights database.
Institute for Human Rights/Instituut voor de rechten van de mens () Type:Research / Education
Teaching focused on the European Convention of Human Rights and its institutions. Research on a wide range of issues of international human rights law.
Instituto de Derechos Humanos (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) (IDH)
Basic objective: promote scientific research and teaching on human rights and serve as a forum for reflection and debate on these topics. Speicalised courses - Seminars - Conferences - Interdisciplinary events - Collaborartion with other universities
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) Type:International or Regional Organization
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) is one of two bodies in the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights.
Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (IIDH/IIHR) Type:Research / Education
"The Inter-American Institute of Human Rights is an international institution devoted to education, promotion and research in the field of human rights in the Americas". Created under an agreement between the IACHR and the Republic of Costa Rica.
Interights () Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
"An international human rights law centre promoting the effective use of law to protect human rights and freedoms worldwide".
International Association for the Protection of Human Rights in Cyprus ()
http:// Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Member of Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network (EMHRN)
International Federation of Human Righs (FIDH) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Bringing together 115 human rights organisations from 90 countries, the FIDH is a non-political, non-sectarian, non-profit organization working to advance the implementation of all the rights defined by the UDHR and other international instruments.
Lawyer's Committee for Human Rights (LCHR) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Programs that focus on building the legal institutions and structures that will guarantee human rights in the long term - Strengthening independent human rights advocacy at the local level - Impartial - Also seeks to influence the U.S. Government...
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights (BIM) Type:Research / Education
Research activities in the field of human rights on the national and the international level - Human rights teaching and training - Public human rights library - Link between the scientific community and practitioners - Empirical research, projects.
MacArthur Justice Center () Type:Other
A nonprofit public-interest law firm affiliated with the University of Chicago Law School. Fights for human rights and social justice through litigation. Focus on cases that raise constitutional or significant issues in the field of criminal justice.
Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institute (MCLI) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Advocates for human rights and peace law - US law - UN law - Reports on violations - Trains interns - Publishes the Human Rights & Peace Law Docket, the Human Rights Organizations and Periodicals Directory, Peace Law Packets, etc.
National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC) Type:National Human Rights Institution
Inquires into human rights violations; Intervenes in court proceedings; Visits detention centres; Reviews constitutional and legal safeguards; Studies international treaties; Research; Spreads human rights literacy; Encourages human rights NGOs.
Northern Ireland Human Rights commission (NIHRC) Type:National Human Rights Institution
Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998, in compliance with the Good Friday Agreement of 10 April 1998. Aims to ensure the protection of the human rights of everyone in Northern Ireland in law, policy, and practice.
Norwegian Institute of Human Rights (NIHR) Type:National Human Rights Institution
Became Norway's National Human rights Institution in 2001. Founded by leading scholars in 1978. Publications, study programmes, research programmes.
Ombudsman Institution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina () Type:National Human Rights Institution
Established by the Constitution of the Federation. Mandate: to protect human dignity, human rights and fundamental freedoms and to reverse the consequences of ethnic cleansing.
Organisation Marocaine des Droits Humains (OMDH) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Legal and medical protection and assistance for victims of human rights violations: Deal with complaints; Medical assistance and rehabilitation; documentation and information; studies on judicial and institutional guarantees.
Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (RWI) Type:Research / Education
An academic institution promoting research, training and academic education in the fields of human rights and humanitarian law. Maintains an excellent research library; initiates, develops, carries out and supports other activities.
Tampere Peace Research Institute (TAPRI) Type:Research / Education
"The research policy programme of the Tampere Peace Research Institute, TAPRI, is based on international and social changes during the last decade and on scientific development arising from the traditions of peace research."
Union Interafricaine des Droits de l'Homme (UIDH) Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
A pan-African NGO working in the area of the defense, the promotion and the protection of human rights, democracy and development.
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) Type:United Nations System
Assumes principal responsibility for the human rights activities of the UN, including the tasks of streamlining the human rights machinery throughout the United Nations system and supervising the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
University of Minnesota Human Rights Center () Type:Research / Education
Assists human rights advocates, monitors, students, and educators through: Applied Human Rights Research - Educational Tools - Field and Training Opportunities - Human Rights On-line - Learning Communities and Partnerships. U. Minnesota HR Library.