Rights of Special Groups
Specific Instruments
  General Instruments
  Selected Case Law
  Case Law Websites
  Human Rigths Actors
or "Special Protection" or "Rights of Vulnerable Groups" or "Protection of Special Groups".
Specific Instruments
Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Date of adoption: 10/5/1999 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities
Date of adoption: 7/6/1999 Entry into force: 14/9/2001
System of protection: Organization of American States
European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant Workers
Date of adoption: 24/11/1977 Entry into force: 1/5/1983
System of protection: Council of Europe
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness
Date of adoption: 30/8/1961 Entry into force: 13/12/1975
System of protection: Universal
Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons
Date of adoption: 28/9/1954 Entry into force: 6/6/1960
System of protection: Universal
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
Date of adoption: 18/12/1990 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: "Protocol of San Salvador"
Date of adoption: 17/11/1988 Entry into force: 16/11/1999
System of protection: Organization of American States
Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter
Date of adoption: 5/5/1988 Entry into force: 4/9/1992
System of protection: Council of Europe
Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live
Date of adoption: 13/12/1985 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
General Instruments
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam
Date of adoption: 5/8/1990 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Organization of the Islamic Conference
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
Date of adoption: 25/6/1993 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
European Social Charter
Date of adoption: 18/10/1961 Entry into force: 26/2/1965
System of protection: Council of Europe
European Social Charter (revised)
Date of adoption: 3/5/1996 Entry into force: 1/7/1999
System of protection: Council of Europe
American Convention on Human Rights (Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica)
Date of adoption: 22/11/1969 Entry into force: 18/7/1978
System of protection: Organization of American States
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Date of adoption: 7/12/2000 Entry into force: -
System of protection: European Union
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
Date of adoption: 10/12/1948 Entry into force: -
System of protection: Universal
Languages: English Swedish
Thousands of references (with abstracts) to monographs, articles, and seminar reports concerning human rights from 1966 on, updated daily. The data are stored in a free form and every word and phrase is searchable. Follows HURIDOCS standards.
Languages: Arabic Chinese English French Portuguese Russian Spanish
The official site of Human Rights Watch - an independent NGO. News releases - Current events - Publications - Info by country - Campaigns - Issues -Reports - Links... Search engine. A very informative site.
Languages: English French
This site, set up by the Human Rights Directorate General, presents and gives access to all the Council of Europe's activities and documents related to human rights. The quality of the links it offers is rather inconsistent.
Languages: English Greek
Research, study, defense, protection and promotion of the generally recognized fundamental human rights and freedoms - List of publications - Events - News on human rights - Reports -Jurisprudence - Legislation
Languages: English
The primary goal of this site is to compile news articles and commentaries that address issues of human rights from news sources throughout the world. People and organizations (human rights actors) - Discussions - links to web sites.
Languages: English Greek
News and human rights reports (for example: muslim weddings by proxy in Greece) - Special focus on subjects such as terrorism - The state of the respect of human rights in Greece - Criminal law
Selected Case Law
Case Law Websites
Council of Europe - Human Rights Web
Languages: English French
Search the case-law of the European Convention on Human Rights control bodies.
International Human Rights Law Database (The)
Languages: English
A resource for those seeking summaries and commentaries on international human rights case law, the database allows searches by text, 47 subjects, 81 states, 9 treaties, 9 decisionmaking bodies, and date. A powerful and quick database.
Repertorio de Jurisprudencia del Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos
Languages: Spanish
Directory of the case law of the Inter-American Court 1980 - 1997.
For the Record 2001: The United Nations Human Rights System
Human Rights Internet Date: 2001
Reference: Human Rights Internet, 2001
Source: Human Rights Internet
FTR is an electronic annual report that provides summaries of relevant human rights information generated within the UN system. An important reference tool for those active in national and international social justice movements, the report also aids in simplifying the human rights work of the UN for the uninitiated, members of national legislative assemblies, journalists, students, teachers and the general public. Produced with the support of the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade since 1997, the report is organized thematically as well as by country and covers all relevant UN documentation over a full calendar year. These include: State reports prepared for the six human rights treaty bodies and the concluding observations of the experts who review those reports; documentation, resolutions and decisions by various UN system bodies.
For the Record 2001: The European Human Rights System
Human Rights Internet & Netherlands Institute of Human Rights / Internet des droits humains et l' Institut néerlandais des droits de l'homme Date: 2001
Reference: -
Source: Human Rights Internet & Netherlands Institute of Human Rights
A review of the major human rights developments in the European human rights system (within the Council of Europe). Organized thematically and by country. Focuses on developments in the scope of: European Convention on Human Rights; European Social Charter; European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and its protocols; Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities; and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. A major distinguishing feature of FTR Europe is that it contains summaries of human rights case law.
Migrant Workers in International Human Rights Law: Their Protection in Countries of Employment
Reference: Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997
Languages: English
A broad definition of migrant workers and an expansive approach to their rights. The author analyses general international legal standards, the work of the ILO and the UN Convention, and the Council of Europe and EU standards and policies.
Introduction au droit public, t. II, Les droits et libertés
Reference: Diegem, Kluwer, 2003
Languages: French
Professor Ergec's book on rights and freedoms was enlarged for this 2nd edition. The book covers fundamental rights and freedoms at Belgian, European and International levels.
Code de droit international des droits de l'homme
Reference: Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003
Languages: French
2nd edition (updated to May 1st, 2003) of this collection of the main international instruments (as well universal as regional) regarding the protection of fundamental human rights.
Avancées et confins actuels des droits de l'homme aux niveaux international, européen et national
Mélanges offerts à Silvio Marcus Helmons Ed.
Reference: Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003
Languages: French
Impressive collection of articles in the field of international and european human rights, as a tribute to the founder of the Center for Human Rights of the faculty of law of the Université Catholique de Louvain.
Recueil juridique des droits de l'homme en Afrique (1996-2000)
Paul Tavernier Ed. - Paul TAVERNIER
Reference: Bruxelles, CREDHO & human rights law in Africa Series, Bruylant, 2002
Languages: English French
I. United Nations and human rights in Africa : a report -- II. Regional protection : Organization of African Unity (a report), European Union, Francophonie -- III. National protection (per country) -- Treaties, rafications and a large bibliography
Actualité et Droit International
Contact: despretz@ridi.org http://www.ridi.org/adi/
Languages: French
E-journal of international news legal analysis. Articles (archive from 1998, quick search), chronicles and cases, discussions, international news, announcements. Useful links.
Droits Fondamentaux
Reference: Paris,
Contact: despretz@toile.org http://www.droits-fondamentaux.org/
Languages: French
First electronic journal in French on Fundamental Rights.
Human Rights Brief - Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law
Reference: Washington, Washington College of Law
Contact: hrbrief@wcl.american.edu http://www.wcl.american.edu/hrbrief/
Languages: English
The Human Rights Brief reports about developments in international human rights and humanitarian law, as well as provides concise legal analysis of current human rights issues. Search by Volume / Issue / Title / Author. Archive since Spring 1994.
Human Rights Tribune
Reference: Ottawa, Human Rights Internet
Contact: hri@hri.ca http://www.hri.ca/cftribune/
Languages: English
A tri-yearly publication of HRI (Human Rights Internet). Addresses all areas of human rights from a non-governmental perspective world-wide. Articles about important events - NGO reports - Analysis of the work of human rights organizations.
The International Journal of Human Rights
Reference: London, Frank Cass Publishers
Contact: jnlsubs@frankcass.com http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/hr.htm
Languages: English
Quarterly journal covering an exceptionally broad spectrum of human rights issues: human rights and the law, race, religion, gender, children, class, refugees and immigration, genocide, torture, capital punishment, the laws of war and war crimes, ...
Human Rights Actors
European Roma Rights Center (ERRC)
http://www.errc.org/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
An international public interest law organisation which monitors the human rights situation of Roma and provides legal defence in cases of human rights abuse.
Foundation on Inter-ethnic Relations (FIER)
http:// Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
A private, non-profit organisation. Aim: to promote research and co-operation on interethnic relations. In particular: seeks to co-ordinate specialised programmes directly supportive of the work of the OSCE High Commissioner for National Minorities.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (Australia) (HREOC)
http://www.humanrights.gov.au/ Type:National Human Rights Institution
A national independent statutory government body. Conducts inquiries into alleged discrimination on the grounds of race, colour or ethnic origin, racial vilification, sex, sexual harassment, marital status, pregnancy, or disability. HR education.
Human Rights and Human Diversity Initiative (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) ()
http://www.unl.edu/HumanR/index.html Type:Research / Education
Goal: to examine issues related to human rights in an international perspective. Relationship between cultural diversity and human rights. Universality of HR. Minorities: refugees, voluntary migrants, and indigenous peoples. Human rights protectors.
Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (University of Amsterdam) (IMES)
http://www.pscw.uva.nl/imes/ Type:Research / Education
An interdisciplinary research institute of the University of Amsterdam. The research programme of IMES focuses on the Dutch case with specific attention given to the City of Amsterdam, but from an international and comparative perspective.
International Center for Migration, Ethnicity and Citizenship (ICMEC)
http://www.newschool.edu/icmec/ Type:Research / Education
Scholarly research and public policy analysis bearing on international migration, refugees, and the incorporation of newcomers. Causes of large international migrations and refugee flows, Patterns of demographic change and policies, etc....
International Commission of Jurists, and its Centre for the Independence of Judges and Lawyers (ICJ)
http://www.icj.org/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
International NGO - Goal to support and advance principles of justice constituting the basis of the Rule of Law; assist peoples denied the Rule of Law. Independence of the judiciary and of lawyers - Fair trial - Abolition of the death penalty.
International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies (U.S. National Academy of Sciences) ()
http://www4.nas.edu/oia/oiahome.nsf/web/network?Op Type:Network
Assists scientists and scholars around the world who are subjected to severe repression solely for having nonviolently exercised their rights. Promotes human rights consciousness-raising and institutional commitment to human rights work worldwide.
International Movement against All forms of Discrimination and Racism (IMADR)
http://www.imadr.org/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
An international non-profit, human rights NGO devoted to eliminating all forms of discrimination around the world, forging international solidarity among discriminated minorities and advancing the international regime of human rights.
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
http://www.iom.int/ Type:International or Regional Organization
Acts to: assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration management - Advance understanding of migration issues - Encourage social and economic development through migration - Uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.
Irish Council for Civil Liberties (An Chomhairle um Chearta Daonna) (ICCL)
http://www.iccl.ie/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
Primary focus of ICCL work is campaigning: against emergency legislation and special courts; constitutional referenda on numerous issues including divorce, abortion, bail, and cabinet confidentiality; rights of minorities; due process rights.
Migration Policy Group (MPG)
http://www.migpolgroup.com/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
An independent organisation committed to policy development on mobility, migration, diversity, equality and anti-discrimination. Facilitates exchanges between stakeholders from all sectors, to help respond to challenges of migration and diversity.
Minority Rights Group International (MRG)
http://www.minorityrights.org/ Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
International NGO, bases in London, that promotes the rights of ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities.
Open Society Institute (OSI)
http://www.soros.org/osi.html Type:NGO (Non-Governmental Organization)
A private operating and grantmaking foundation that develops and implements a range of programs in civil society, education, media, public health and human and women's rights, as well as social, legal, and economic reform. Active in 50+ countries.
Representative of the Secretary-General on internally displaced persons ()
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/midp.htm Type:United Nations System
Four main areas of work: the development of a normative framework; the development of an effective institutional framework at the international, regional and national levels; country missions; and on-going research into specific issues of concern.
Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance ()
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mrad.htm Type:United Nations System
Mandate established in 1993...
Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the human rights of migrants ()
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mmig.htm Type:United Nations System
Mandate established in 1999, by E/CN.4/RES/1999/44 of 26 April 1999.
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)
http://www.un.org/ga/56/ Type:United Nations System
Main deliberative organ, while its decisions have no legally binding force for Governments, they carry the weight of world opinion on major international issues, as well as the moral authority of the world community.